The last bastion of Pa‘akai, traditional Hawaiian salt-making, is threatened by growth of helicopter operations at Port Allen Airport, which is adjacent to the salt ponds and opened in the 1920s. Pa‘akai is hand-made unprocessed salt, exceptionally rich in ocean minerals and renowned by Hawaiians for health, healing and spiritual properties. From the 1800s into the twentieth century salt making took place on all the Hawaiian Islands as documented by land records and newspapers. Yet over time most of the lands used for salt making were lost to industrialization or sold. Hanapepe salt, made near the southern coast of Kauai island, is the only remaining traditionally cultivated salt in Hawaii. It is made in salt beds by highly skilled practitioners, all of whom belong to over 20 families who have passed the craft on through the generations and care for as well as cultivate the salt ponds. Hanapepe salt is not a commercial product; tradition dictates that it cannot be sold, it must only be gifted or in some cases bartered. Maverick Helicopters operates a number of facilities at Port Allen Airport, which were constructed without the requisite permits. A Special Management Area Permit issued by Kauai County in 2005 required the removal of all temporary structures, including sheds and shipping containers, associated with helicopter operations. This requirement was never complied with. Then in June 2019 the company sought permits after the fact for its activities. The firm denies that its activities have negative impacts on salt making. But the practitioners say dust and noise from airport operations, particularly helicopters, do adversely affect salt-making. Concerns over the helicopter operations are not just about loss of resources but also about loss of practice. Hanapepe salt ponds are one of the important cultural sites in Hawaii, an enduring site of traditional teaching. The matter was scheduled to go before the Kauai Planning Commission and salt-making practitioners worked to galvanize community members to oppose Maverick Helicopters’ applications for permits.